Mesopotamia, ‘’land between rivers’’ or ‘’land of rivers’’, was the area around the Tigris-Euphrates river system. It corresponds to modern day: Kuwait, Iraq, the northeastern area of the Syria and smaller parts of Iran and Turkey. Western World considers that Mesopotamia was the cradle of civilization. During Bronze Age Mesopotamia included: Akkadian, Babylonian, Assyrian and Sumer empires. All of them were located to modern-day Iraq territory. During the Iron Age, Mesopotamia was controlled by the Neo-Babylonian and Neo-Assyrian empires. In 539 BC, it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. From 3.100BC (beginning of written history) to its fall, the Akkadians and indigenous Sumerians dominated Mesopotamia. In 332 BC, it fell to Alexander the Great. When Alexander the Great died, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire.
In 150 BC, Mesopotamia became a battleground, between Parthians, the current rulers and Roman, who wanted to conquer this empire. Since AD 226, when it fell to the Sassanid Persians, in the 7th century, Mesopotamia has been under Persian rule. Then, it was conquered by the Muslims. Osroene, Adiabene, Hatra and several other Cristian and neo-Assyrian native Mesopotamian states existed from the 1st century BC until the 3rd century CE. From the late 7th century, this area is known as Iraq.
Mesopotamia was one of the four civilizations where writing was invented. Others are Egypt (Nile Valley), the Indian subcontinent (Indus Valley) and China (Yellow River valley). The most important Mesopotamian leaders were: Hammurabi (the founder of the old Babylon state), Tiglath-Pileser I (the founder of the Assyrian Empires), Ashur-uballit II and Sargon (the founder of the Akkadian Empire). Important cities were: Nineveh, Assur, Nippur, Uruk and the most known, Babylon.