The decisive battle of Caesar’s Civil War was the Battle of Pharsalus.This battle was fought on 9 August 48 BC, in the central Greece, at Pharsalus, between Gaius Julius Caesar and his allies versus Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as the ‘’Pompey the Great’’. Caesar and his allies formed an army opposite to the republic. Pompey had a support from the majority of senators and his army was bigger than the Caesarian legions. Caesar was isolated on the hostile territory with only 22.000 men. On the other side was Pompey with an army 2 times larger in numbers. Despite Pompey wanted to delay the battle, because Caesar’s soldiers will eventually surrender, due to exhaustion and hunger, he was under a lot of pressure of the senators and his officers. As the result of this, he attacked Caesar. After the severe defeat, Pompey and his officers fled the camp disguised as citizens.
Caesar had on his disposal: 22.000 legionaries, 5.000-10.000 Allies and Auxiliaries and the Allies cavalry of 1.800. Pompey had: 40.000-45.000 legionaries, 4.200 Allies and Auxiliaries and 5.000-8.000 Allied Cavalry. According to Caesar, he lost approximately 230 soldiers. On the other side, Pompey lost 6.000.
After the battle, Pompey fled to Egypt, but he was assassinated on the order of Ptolemy XIII, current Pharaoh. He sent Pompey’s head to Caesar in order to win his favor. Instead of favor, Pharaoh secured Caesar as his enemy because, at that time, Caesar was granting amnesty to people who were enemies of Rome. Those people could return to Rome and even take back their positions in the Roman society. This battle didn’t end the Roman Civil War.