The Battle of Britain, or ‘’ Luftschlacht um England’’ (Air Battle for England) is the name of the campaign, that included air battles between the Luftwaffe (Nazi Germany Air Force) and the United Kingdom. It lasted during the summer and autumn of 1940. To that date, the battle of Britain was the largest aerial bombing and it was fought entirely by air forces. The main goal of the Germany was to gain air superiority over the RAF (Royal Air Force). In the beginning, the main targets were shipping centers and shipping convoys. One of the main targets was Portsmouth. From July 1940, Luftwaffe started attacking RAF infrastructure and airports. During this battle, German Air Force aimed aircraft factories and other infrastructure. Before the end of this battle, Luftwaffe started using the terror bombing strategy and was attacking areas that had political importance.
The RAF was very successful in defending England. They postponed, and later cancel the Operation Sea Lion. This was Hitler’s plan for airborne and amphibious invasion on Britain. Despite this, German Air forces continue bombing England. Those operations are known as ‘’The Blitz.’’ Because Germany was unable to defeat the British air defenses, the Battle of Britain is considered as the Nazi Germany’s first defeat and it had the crucial role in the World War II. The name of this battle was delivered from the Winston Churchill (Prime Minister at that time) speech in the House of Commons. This speech was held three weeks before the battle officially started.
The Battle of Britain can be divided into four phases: 10 July-11 August (the Channel battles), 12-23 August (attack on coastal airfields), 24 August-6 September (Luftwaffe targeted RAF airfields) and 7 September onwards (Luftwaffe attacked British cities).