The Roman Empire was the period of the ancient Roman civilization after the Republication period. The government was headed by emperors. This period was also known for large territorial holdings in the Europe, Asia and Africa. One of the most known dictators from that period was Julius Caesar. He was assassinated in 44BC.
After his assassination, his adopted son, Octavian won a battle at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, defeating Mark Antony and Cleopatra.
The period of success for the Roman Empire lasted 500 years. During that, first two centuries, the Empire was very successful and prosper. That period is known as ‘’Roman Peace’’ or ‘’Pax Romana.’’
After Octavian’s victory, the Empire was significantly increased. In 69, Vespasian established the Flavian dynasty. He was succeeded by his son Titus. He opened Colosseum soon after the eruption of Vesuvius. Domitian, Titus brother, was the next ruler. After a long reign, he was assassinated. After that, the Senate appointed the First of the Five Good Emperors.
During the reign of Commodus, the Empire started to decline. He was assassinated in 192. His death triggered the Year of the Five Emperors. The next ruler was Septimius Severus. The Empire had constant conflicts until the reign of Diocletian. During his reign, the Empire was fully stabilized with the Tetrarchy. This means that 4 Emperors were ruling over the Empire at once. Even this arrangement was unsuccessful in the end. It led to civil wars and it was ended by Constantine I. He defeated all his rivals and become the only ruler of the Empire. Constantine is known for adopting Christianity.
An Egyptology professor at UK's Swansea University recently stumbled upon a remarkable Egyptian artifact.