Military in the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire had a huge success in conquering new lands and expanding their territories. This is done with a huge and effective military. Osman I organized the first army of the Ottoman State in the late 13th century. It was made from tribesmen that lived in the areas of western Anatolia. Through history, military was improved, but it always had a complex system of recruiting new soldiers. The main part of the army was made from: Sipahi, Akinci, Mehterân and Janissary. It was one of the most powerful army in the history, and one of the most advance for that age. Their soldiers were one of the first who used cannons and muskets (rifles).

During the Siege of Constantinople, the Ottoman Turks started using wide but short cannons, called ‘’falconets.’’ Their cavalry used Arabian and Turkoman horses that were known for their speed. Calvary depended on speed, and they used short swords and bows. Their tactics were the same as one in the Mongol Empire. They pretended to retreat, so the enemy would follow them, but it would be surrounded from all sides. After the Great Turkish War in the mid-17th century, the power of the military started to decline.

In the 19th century, the modernization of the military started. This army was one of the first who sent their officers for education and training in European countries and they hired foreign experts. Their military had a strong Navy that was very important in the expansion of the Ottoman’s Empire in Europe. In 1517 it started attack on Egypt, Algeria and other countries in North Africa. Since 1830, the strength of the Ottoman Navy has started to decline.
 

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