Great Retreat: July–September 1915

The Great Retreat was the Imperial Russian Army withdrawal from the Galicia-Poland salient. It occurred in the World War I, and it lasted from July to September 1915. The Russian Army was outnumbered so they suffered serious losses in the summer offensive battles. These were the Central Powers' July-September operations. These losses, led to the Great Retreat. It was done in order to shorten the length of the front and prevent more loss in the Russian Army. This withdraw was carefully planned and conducted. However, it was serious impact on morale of Russian soldiers.

The German advance was halted by the Russian counter attack on September 1915. The German troops had severe losses and they suffered from many diseases. Also, they were under strength and they starved. The new front line was set from the Romanian border to the Baltic Sea. 

Tsar Nicholas II took advantage of STAVKA’s blunders in losing many soldiers to the offensive that lasted during the summer. This occurred on 21 August 1915. He removed Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich from the leading post and took over control over the army.

The Russian Army was led by: Grand Duke Nicholas, Mikhail Alekseyev and Nikolay Iudovich Ivanov. They had at disposal: 1.200.000 soldiers, 9.300 fortress guns and 6.000 mobile guns. They lost: 500.000 soldiers (killed, missing or wounded) and 1.000.000 were captured. Also, they lost 9.300 fortress guns. On the other side, the German Army and Austria-Hungary Armies were led by: Erich von Falkenhayn and Erich Ludendorff. They had at their disposal: 1.136.000 soldiers and 4.650 guns. They lost: 200.000 soldiers (killed, wounded or missing). 

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